10: An Ocean Full of Life - Geosciences

10: An Ocean Full of Life - Geosciences

10: An Ocean Full of Life - Geosciences

Life is like the ocean in that seeing its surface, and even appreciating its beauty, is not the same as diving in. Nothing can prepare you for the felt experience of the ocean except stepping into the ocean. From the initial cold water washing onto your feet, legs, and torso, to its current pulling you in as you walk deeper, to that moment of choice to surrender to its entirely other element—wherein you must breathe, move, and flow differently.

This week was unlike most. The waves, typically 3-7 feet, were 10-14 feet. Waves you can see from the beach, of course. But invisible from shore was the rip tide–wildly fierce and swift. It’s years of ocean swimming–of contact, strength and the seasoned feel of a deep current—that prepares one to embrace such an adventure.

In the ocean of your life, where are you? There are times to sit, peaceful on the beach, before or after swimming. To rest. To take in the unparalleled view. (For no one else in the world has your view of life). Honor these times of rest. Of reflection or hope.

Ocean Exploration News Archive

In the past year, scientists exploring the world’s marine biodiversity and geology have found the deepest fish in the sea and drilled into a submerged ancient continent. Read more about some of the fruits of the year in ocean exploration.

Even at 36,000 Feet Deep, Ocean Creatures Have Plastic in Their Guts

November 16, 2017 | LiveScience

A new study finds that crustaceans dwelling at the bottom of the 36,000-foot-deep (10,970 meters) trench have microplastics in their guts. In fact, across six deep-ocean trenches in the Pacific, not one was free of plastic contamination, the researchers reported today (Nov. 15).

Prepping for Alien Oceans, NASA Goes Deep

September 21, 2017 | Scientific American

In late 2012 NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope spotted what appeared to be plumes of water vapor spewing from the frozen surface of Jupiter’s moon Europa. Another observation last year provided more evidence this was not a fluke. It is likely that below that distant world’s ice is an ocean larger than all of Earth’s combined. This created a frenzy in the astrobiological community—brimming with all that water, could Europa also have the necessary ingredients for life?

Robotic Deep Sea Explorer Uncovers Treasure Trove of Freaky Marine Life

August 4, 2017 | Gizmodo

Last month, scientists aboard the NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer visited a poorly-explored deep sea area about 940 miles west of Hawaii. From giant sea spiders and rare snailfish through to comb jellies and glass-like corals, these are some of the weirdest critters we’ve seen in a while.

Ocean Exploration and the Quest to Inspire the Public

June 21, 2017 | The Huffington Post

Both space and ocean exploration can boast world firsts, extreme risks, unknown challenges, and mind-boggling discoveries that captivate our imagination and advance our understanding of our world and, fundamentally, of ourselves. So why does space exploration and research capture our collective attention and imagination more than ocean exploration and research?

We Need NASA for Ocean Exploration

June 8, 2017 | Inverse Science

It’s World Oceans Day, and the oceans need our help more than ever. In 2016, Inverse made the case for giving ocean exploration the same attention we give space exploration.

Ocean Discovery XPRIZE Aims to Reveal the Deepest Secrets of the Sea

April 14, 2017 | NBC News

The ocean covers an astonishing two-thirds of our planet. Yet except for a few strange features — including the Romanche Fracture Zone, a valley along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that’s four times bigger than the Grand Canyon a 4,000-meter cliff near the Bahamas and a mid-Atlantic mountain chain that spans 40,000 miles and connects the Southern and Northern hemispheres &ndash we know little about the specific features that lie in the deepest parts of the ocean.

The 'Curious' Robots Searching for the Ocean's Secrets

February 23, 2017 | The Atlantic

A new class of machines knows how to recognize and investigate unexpected things that pop up underwater.

Inside the U.S.'s Only Ocean Exploration Ship

February 17, 2017 | Scientific American

A new class of machines knows how to recognize and investigate unexpected things that pop up underwater.

New generation of underwater drones makes waves for citizen scientists

November 2, 2016 | CBS News

Underwater drones are opening up a whole new frontier of exploration. The lightweight vehicles can zip along coral reefs, explore marine life and even go inside shipwrecks.

Exploring vast 'submerged America,' marine scientists discover 500 bubbling methane vents

October 19, 2016 | AAAS EurekaAlert!

Five hundred vents newly discovered off the US West Coast, each bubbling methane from Earth's belly, top a long list of revelations about "submerged America" being celebrated by leading marine explorers meeting in New York.

There's an Enormous Natural Gas Seep Along the West Coast

October 19, 2016 | Gizmodo

From British Columbia to Northern California, planet Earth’s got a case of the toots. A recent deep ocean mapping survey has learned that a geologically-active strip of seafloor called the Cascadia Subduction Zone is bubbling methane like mad. It could be one of the most active methane seeps on the planet.

Images from the deep unveil weird and wild sea critters

October 19, 2016 | Daily Mail

Some of the pictures taken by remote cameras of never-before-seen areas, especially off the eastern Pacific, show what looks like an imaginary world. There's a delicate jellyfish, an eel with a strange head and a purple disco ball-like critter. And just in time for Halloween, there's a rare purple Vampire Squid, nicknamed for its red eyes and deep color. The images are being shown as part of the National Ocean Exploration Forum this week in New York.

A Quest to Map the Seafloor by 2030

September 29, 2016 | Newsweek

The unknown hit the USS San Francisco like a torpedo. On January 8, 2005, the nuclear submarine was barreling along at 38 miles per hour, 525 feet beneath the surface. Such vessels often travel in virtual blindness, forgoing radar and its telltale pings the crew relied on seafloor charts to navigate. But the maps were incomplete.

Scientists get a look at sunken World War II aircraft carrier after 65 years

August 24, 2016 | CNN

At its peak in World War II, the USS Independence sank a Japanese battleship during the fight for the Philippines. But after the war, the fearsome US aircraft carrier was heavily damaged during atomic tests at Bikini Atoll in the South Pacific. By 1951, it was scuttled about 30 miles from San Francisco. No one had laid eyes on the warship for 65 years &ndash until this week.

Incredible images offer first glimpse of sunken WWII-era aircraft carrier

August 23, 2016 | Fox News

Scientists have released incredible pictures of sunken light aircraft carrier USS Independence that were taken by underwater robots exploring the wreck.

Scientists Dive to WWII-Era USS Independence: How to Watch Live

August 22, 2016 | Live Science

Join researchers on a dive to the wreckage of the USS Independence, a World War II-era aircraft carrier that was deliberately sunk off San Francisco in 1951.

Navy Ship Mysteriously Lost in 1921 Found via Science, Sleuthing

March 25, 2016 | Eos

Scientists painstakingly compared a shipwreck spotted in 2009 to a 1904 schematic of a long-lost tugboat. A naval gun on the wreck proved to be the "smoking gun" identifying the vanished ship.

The USS Conestoga: A tangible reminder of who we are as a nation

March 16, 2016 | NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries

As the West Coast Regional Maritime Heritage Coordinator for NOAA's Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), Schwemmer was the co-principal investigator with James Delgado, ONMS Maritime Heritage Coordinator, on the discovery of the USS Conestoga announced earlier this week. This U.S. Navy fleet tug sailed from San Francisco Bay on March 25, 1921 and vanished with 56 men on board.

Earth's rarest minerals catalogued

February 13, 2016 | BBC

Scientists have categorised the Earth's rarest minerals. None of 2,500 species described is known from more than five locations, and for a few of them the total global supply could fit in a thimble.

New Deep-Sea Vents and Volcanic Activity Discovered in the Mariana Back-Arc

January 29, 2016 | Schmidt Ocean Institue

A diverse team of scientists are returning from a 28-day expedition onboard R/V Falkor that has more than doubled the number of known hydrothermal vent sites in the Mariana Back-arc region.

Novel Vents Built from Talc Found Far from Mid-Ocean Rift

January 5, 2016 | Eos

Researchers discovered the first new variety of hydrothermal vents in a decade&mdasha finding that may give clues to how oceanic crust cools.

The Ocean Business: The Rise and Rhetoric of the Blue Economy

November 2, 2015 | The Economist

Deep-sea mining is both totem and taboo for the new ocean economy. It reflects the promise of what is loosely termed the “blue economy” as well as its dangers and pitfalls.

Perspectives on Ocean Exploration

September 29, 2015 | Aquarium of the Pacific

Video documentary by the Aquarium of the Pacific stresses the importance of understanding Earth's ocean through interviews with leading researchers and historical lessons.

Do Humans Have a Future in Deep Sea Exploration?

September 14, 2015 | The New York Times

Entering the Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory hangar is akin to stepping onto the set of a Spielberg film. The dull metal shell, perched on the Makai pier along the Windward Coast of Oahu, is nondescript, but the inside bristles with Zodiac boats and a dizzying assortment of hoists and tools, and the walls are festooned with 30 years of snapshots.

Centuries-old shipwreck discovered off North Carolina coast

July 17, 2015 | Science Daily

Researchers have discovered a centuries-old shipwreck off the coast of North Carolina. Artifacts around the wreck, including bricks, bottles and navigation gear, appear to date it to the late 18th or early 19th century. Scientists were on an expedition using sonar scanning technology and the submersible vessel Alvin when they spotted the wreckage.

Radioactive Wreck of WWII Aircraft Carrier Discovered Near San Francisco Bay

July 10, 2015 | Western Digs

After more than 60 years &ndash and some of the most intense action that a military vessel has ever seen &ndash a World War II-era aircraft carrier has recently been re-discovered off the coast of San Francisco, still larded with its final cargo: hundreds of barrels of radioactive waste.

Protection voted for deep-sea corals off Atlantic coast

June 10, 2015 | Baltimore Sun

Cold-water corals growing in deep water off Maryland and the rest of the mid-Atlantic coast would be protected from most harmful fishing activity under a sweeping plan approved Wednesday.

U.S. fisheries council protects mid-Atlantic deep ocean coral

June 10, 2015 | Reuters

More than 35,000 square miles (90,650 sq km) of ocean habitat along the U.S. Atlantic coast gained protection on Wednesday from trawl and dredge fishing that could harm deep-sea ocean corals, according to an environmental group supporting the restrictions.

Mountains in Atlantic Mapped by Celtic Explorer's Multi-National Team

June 10, 2015 | Afloat Magazine

A multi-national team of ocean exploration experts from Europe, USA and Canada led by Thomas Furey, Marine Institute, has revealed previously uncharted features on the Atlantic seabed including mountains and ridges taller than Carrauntoohil, Ireland's highest mountain.

Team led by Marine Institute mapping Atlantic sea bed

June 9, 2015 | RTE News

A multi-national team of ocean exploration experts aim to use the marine research resources of Europe, Canada and the US to better understand the North Atlantic Ocean and promote sustainable management of its resources, particularly in the face of climate change.

Making organic molecules in hydrothermal vents in the absence of life

June 8, 2015 | Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

In 2009, scientists from Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution embarked on a NASA-funded mission to the Mid-Cayman Rise in the Caribbean, in search of a type of deep-sea hot-spring or hydrothermal vent that they believed held clues to the search for life on other planets.

Deep Sea Discoveries

June 5, 2015 | Wake Up with Al

Andera Quattrini shares some of the newest deep-sea discoveries with Al Roker and Stephanie Abrams.

See the strange creatures NOAA found at the bottom of the sea

May 15, 2015 | PBS News Hour

Each year, the NOAA ship Okeanos Explorer maps an area of the seafloor the size of West Virginia. When compared to the total Atlantic Ocean, which spans 41 million square miles, West Virginia’s not so large. But the discoveries the team is making are vast: Small creatures in hydrothermal vents. Asphalt volcanoes. Ancient landslides. New species of squid.

Microsoft co-founder says he's discovered long-lost Japanese battleship

March 5, 2015 | CNN

Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen says he has found the wreck of a long-lost World War II Japanese battleship near the Philippines.

‘Huge’ WWII Japanese battleship Musashi has been found, billionaire Paul Allen says

March 4, 2015 | Washington Post

The construction of a vessel that would come to represent the might of Japan’s navy was so secretive, according to historical accounts, that workers hid it underneath a camouflage of rope. There was good reason to try to keep construction secret. It would become a fearsome creature of war: Said to be at that time “the largest battleship in naval history,” it extended nearly 900 feet in length, weighed 73,000 tons and was equipped with a massive arsenal of guns.

Fisheries council looks at deep-sea restrictions

February 10, 2015 | Philadelphia Inquirer

Off the Jersey Shore, where the continental shelf plummets into the deep sea, scientists have been exploring vast canyons, discovering far below the surface a trove of deep-sea corals as colorful and exciting as their warm-water cousins.

Atlantic Corals: Colorful and Vulnerable

February 9, 2015 | The New York Times

A council that sets regulations for fishing off the mid-Atlantic coast will meet on Wednesday to consider protections for little known and fragile ecosystems of deep sea corals in and around 15 ocean sites.

Norfolk Canyon yields deep-sea coral surprises

February 1, 2015 | Daily Press

About 80 miles off the Virginia coast, the Continental Shelf drops off from a depth of 600 feet to sink thousands of feet more toward the black bottom of the deep ocean.

A Moment of Truth Arrives for U.S. Ocean Science

January 30, 2015 | Science Magazine

For years, U.S. marine scientists have fretted about the future of their field, watching as federal funding stagnated and the cost of seafloor observatories and other infrastructure steadily eroded the money available for research. But there's been little agreement on how to respond.

Sea Change: 2015-2025 Decadal Survey of Ocean Sciences: Report Available

January 30, 2015 | National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council

With input from the ocean sciences community, the National Research Council report Sea Change: 2015-2025 Decadal Survey of Ocean Sciences identifies eight strategic research priorities for the next decade that will continue to advance scientific understanding of the ocean.

Who Eats Whom under the Arctic Sea Ice

December 17, 2014 | Scientific American

The Nereid Under Ice vehicle, built and operated by a consortium led by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, completed four dives during its first Arctic mission in July.

Methane Is Discovered Seeping From Seafloor Off East Coast, Scientists Say

August 24, 2014 | The New York Times

Scientists have discovered methane gas bubbling from the seafloor in an unexpected place: off the East Coast of the United States where the continental shelf meets the deeper Atlantic Ocean.

Coral Damage Goes Deeper in Gulf of Mexico's Oil Spill Zone

July 29, 2014 | NBC News

A sweeping survey of coral communities surrounding the site of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico shows that the catastrophe had a wider effect than scientists thought four years ago.

Expedition uncovering Nazi U-boat in Gulf shows WWII played out close to home

July 18, 2014 | Fox News

A team spearheaded by the deep-sea explorer who found the Titanic has been searching a little-known ship graveyard located in the Gulf of Mexico that includes the only known Nazi U-boat to have sunk in the Gulf of Mexico during WWII and a few of its targets.

Fifty Years of Deep Ocean Exploration With the DSV Alvin

June 3, 2014 | Eos

This week the Deep Submergence Vehicle Alvin, the world’s first deep- diving submarine and the only one dedicated to scientific research in the United States, celebrates its 50th anniversary.

The Weird, Wild World of Citizen Science Is Already Here

May 22, 2014 | Wired Magazine

Up and down the west coast of North America, countless numbers of starfish are dying. The affliction, known as Sea Star Wasting Syndrome, is already being called the biggest die-off of sea stars in recorded history, and we’re still in the dark as to what’s causing it or what it means. It remains an unsolved scientific mystery. The situation is also shaping up as a case study of an unsung scientific opportunity: the rise of citizen science and exploration.

John Steinbeck's 1966 Plea To Create A NASA For The Oceans

May 21, 2014 | Popular Science

In the September 1966 issue of Popular Science, author John Steinbeck made the case for giving deep-sea exploration the same attention as the space race.

Robotic Deep-sea Vehicle Lost on Dive to 6-Mile Depth

May 10, 2014 | Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

On Saturday, May 10, 2014, at 2 p.m. local time (10 p.m. Friday EDT), the hybrid remotely operated vehicle Nereus was confirmed lost at 9,990 meters (6.2 miles) depth in the Kermadec Trench northeast of New Zealand.

Peter Rona, Renowned Explorer of the Deep Ocean, Dies at 79

February 24, 2014 | Rutgers

Peter Rona, renowned for his deep-sea exploration, died on Feb. 19 of complications of multiple myeloma. He was 79 years old.

Starting from St. Pete, Explorer's Nautilus Will Map Pacific

February 8, 2014 | The St. Petersburg Tribune

St. Petersburg will be home to the state-of-the art vessel for the next three months while the ship goes through a $1.5 million overhaul of its complex data and communications systems. If all goes to plan, the ship and its 47-man crew will depart the city for the Pacific Ocean in April or May to begin sea-floor mapping of submerged United States territories.

Finding Japan's Aircraft-Carrier Sub

December 2, 2013 | The New York Times

What the crew of the submersible Pisces V found on the sea floor off Hawaii in August was a huge Japanese submarine that the United States sent to the bottom of the ocean in 1946, lest it become a Cold War trophy for the Soviet Union.

Japanese Super Submarine From World War II Finally Discovered

December 2, 2013 | The Huffington Post

Researchers at the University of Hawaii and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have discovered a missing World War II-era Japanese mega-submarine under more than 2,300 feet of water off the southwest coast of Oahu.

Giant World War II Aircraft-carrying Submarine Discovered Off Oahu Coast

December 2, 2013 | The University of Hawaii

A World War II-era Imperial Japanese Navy mega-submarine, the I-400, lost since 1946 when it was intentionally scuttled by U.S. forces after its capture, has been discovered in more than 2,300 feet of water off the southwest coast of O‘ahu. The discovery resolves a decades-old Cold War mystery of just where the lost submarine lay, and recalls a different era as one war ended and a new, undeclared conflict emerged.

Makers: the New Explorers of the Universe

November 2, 2013 | Make Magazine

“[In] the last century, discovery was basically finding things. And in this century, discovery is basically making things.” So explained Stewart Brand at the TED conference this past February. He was referring to the National Geographic Society’s rationale for hosting the first-ever meeting on de-extinction — a gathering of scientists and engineers who are using biotechnology to bring back extinct species.

NOAA partners with children’s show to spread ocean awareness

October 28, 2013 | Salon

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is seeking to improve its image &ndash by associating itself with cute cartoon characters. The federal agency announced that it's partnering with the producer of "Octonauts," an animated preschool series that airs weekday mornings on Disney Channel.

Octonauts Series Adds Federal Partner in Ocean Awareness

October 28, 2013 | The New York Times

Octonauts, the animated preschool series about a crew of eight undersea adventurers whose motto is 'explore, rescue and protect,' is getting a seal of approval of sorts from a unit of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

Scientists Release First Plan for National Ocean Exploration Program

September 25, 2013 | U.S. News and World Report

More than three-quarters of what lies beneath the surface of the ocean is unknown, even to trained scientists and researchers. Taking steps toward discovering what resources and information the seas hold, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Aquarium of the Pacific released on Wednesday a report that details plans to create the nation's first ocean exploration program by the year 2020.

NOAA and Aquarium of the Pacific to Release 1st U.S. National Ocean Exploration Program Report

September 25, 2013 | Wall Street Journal: Market Watch

NOAA and the Aquarium of the Pacific have released their co-authored report today detailing plans for the nation's first ocean exploration program.

Accelerating Ocean Exploration

August 30, 2013 | Science Magazine

Last month, a distinguished group of ocean researchers and explorers convened in Long Beach, California, at the Aquarium of the Pacific to assess progress and future prospects in ocean exploration.

Live Out Your Jacques Cousteau Fantasy with the NOAA's Livestream

August 12, 2013 | The Atlantic Wire

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is running a livestream, complete with delightful commentary, of their exploration of the deep sea. As the NOAA puts it, they want to "allow the world public to ‘join’ the team in making real-time discoveries from hundreds to thousands of meters below the ocean surface."

NOAA’s Okeanos Explorer gives viewers a deep sea TV experience

August 11, 2013 | Fox 4 News

Who needs Honey-Boo-Boo or the next housewives reality TV show when you’ve got an ocean full of real drama?

12 Reasons Pyrosomes Are My New Favorite Terrifying Sea Creatures

August 8, 2013 | The Atlantic

Pyrosomes are actually colonies composed of hundreds and sometimes thousands of individuals known (reason 1.5 to love pyrosomes) as zooids. The individuals work in unison to propel the colony through the water.

What Should We Do With the Blue?

July 21, 2013 | National Geographic

44 years ago today, human beings set foot on the moon. It was the result of nearly a decade of intense research, development, and experimentation, and as John F. Kennedy had forseen, it was not easy– it was hard. But it was done.

Primeval Underwater Forest Discovered in Gulf of Mexico

July 10, 2013 | LiveScience

Scuba divers have discovered a primeval underwater forest off the coast of Alabama. The Bald Cypress forest was buried under ocean sediments, protected in an oxygen-free environment for more than 50,000 years.

Rockets Top Submarines: Space Exploration Dollars Dwarf Ocean Spending

June 20, 2013 | Center for American Progress

“Star Trek” would have us believe that space is the final frontier, but with apologies to the armies of Trekkies, their oracle might be a tad off base. Though we know little about outer space, we still have plenty of frontiers to explore here on our home planet. And they’re losing the race of discovery.

Ocean Science and Exploration Are Capitol Hill Focus for Explorer and Filmmaker James Cameron and WHOI President and Director Susan Avery

June 11, 2013 | PR Newswire

Explorer and director James Cameron will be on Capitol Hill on Tuesday, June 11, with Dr. Susan Avery, president and director of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution for a series of public events and a Senate hearing.

James Cameron: 'Deep sea exploration could help predict tsunamis'

June 6, 2013 | CNN Tech

More than 15 years after director James Cameron made his Oscar-winning film, it was his turn to scour the deep sea in a high-tech pod. But unlike his "Titanic" fictional character Lockett, Cameron wasn't in search of a sunken diamond &ndash instead he was gathering scientific data which could revolutionize our understanding of both deep sea creatures and earthquakes.

Aquarium Of The Pacific’s New Exhibit Gives Visitors A Look At Life At The Depths Of The Ocean

May 28, 2013 | Everything Long Beach

Starting this summer, visitors to the Aquarium of the Pacific will be transported into the dark depths of the ocean, where they will encounter unusual animals that live beyond the reach of light.

The Institute for Creation Research

From where did the earth come? By what process was it constructed? Did an ever-seeing Intelligence plan and direct the creation of our planet? Or, did the earth evolve by unguided chance processes without an overseeing plan? A person's answers to the above questions will significantly affect his personal viewpoint regarding the origin, purpose, and destiny of both the earth and man.

Since scientists agree that the earth has not existed eternally, simple logic dictates that no middle position exists on the important issue of plan versus accident. Either a superintending Mind planned and designed our planet, or it all originated by a fortuitous accident without a plan and design! To help resolve the matter let us consider some amazing facts about the earth.


The average temperature at the earth's surface depends upon several factors, the two most important being the distance of the earth from the sun and the tilt of the rotational axis of the earth. Of secondary importance to the earth's surface temperature is the area of the continents, the amount of earth covered by light- and heat-reflecting masses of ice (glaciers), and the amount of carbon dioxide and water vapor affecting the transparency of the atmosphere to both incoming and outgoing heat.

The most important factor affecting the surface temperature of the earth is obviously the distance from the sun. If the earth were moved a few million miles closer to the sun, the surface of the earth would become warmer causing our glaciers to melt. With a decrease in the area of ice the total reflectivity of our planet's surface would thereby decrease and more of the sun's heat would be absorbed. The melting of glaciers would produce a rise of sea level, and, apart from flooding most of our modern cities, would create a larger total ocean surface area. Since seawater absorbs larger amounts of solar radiation than equal area land masses, heating of the earth would again be promoted. Furthermore, after increasing the temperature of the oceans, much of the ocean's dissolved carbon dioxide would be added to the atmosphere along with large amounts of water due to increased evaporation. The increased carbon dioxide and water vapor level of the atmosphere would again bring about a significant temperature rise. All things considered, a minor decrease in the sun's distance would have a drastic heating effect on the earth's surface.

What would happen if the earth were a few million miles farther from the sun? The reverse of the previous situation applies. We would have more of our planet covered by ice, with associated increased reflectivity of the sun's heat. The ocean would cover less of the earth's surface and the important process of absorption of heat by seawater would be decreased. Since the ocean would be colder, evaporation would be less with less heat-trapping water vapor in the atmosphere. Much of the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere would become dissolved in the colder ocean. Calculations show that a decrease of carbon dioxide in the air to just one-half of its present level would lower the average temperature of the earth's surface by about 7.0 degrees Fahrenheit! Thus, increasing the sun's distance would have a profound cooling effect on our planet.

From this discussion we see that the earth is just the proper distance from the sun to maintain the right surface temperature suitable for life and the many important geologic processes! To the evolutionist the distance of the earth from the sun is a strange accident, but to the creationist it is a marvelous testimony of God's planning.


The earth's axis of rotation is tilted 23 1 /2 degrees relative to the perpendicular of the earth's plane of orbit. This tilt causes the four seasons. During the months of May, June, and July the northern hemisphere is pointed toward the sun, causing the hemisphere to warm and bringing on the season called summer. During November, December, and January the northern hemisphere is pointed away from the sun providing colder temperatures and the season called winter. Why is this tilt 23 1 /2 degrees? Why not some other value?

What if the earth had no tilt, and the axis of rotation remained perpendicular to the plane of orbit? We would have no seasons and the surface temperature at any point on the earth would be the same during both July and January. The equatorial region of our planet would be intolerably hot all year and the poles would remain fairly cold. Ice would accumulate at the poles. The weather patterns would be stationary with permanently positioned warm and cold air masses. Some areas would continually be very humid while other areas would be quite arid. Only the mid-latitudes would be comfortable for human habitation and suitable for cultivation. Only about one half of our presently farmable lands could grow crops.

What would be the effect if the earth had double the present tilt? Temperature extremes between seasons would be much more pronounced. Even the mid-latitudes would have unbearable heat in the summer and frigid cold in the winter. Most of Europe and North America would experience very prolonged darkness in the winter and very prolonged daylight in the summer. Life on most of the earth's surface would become intolerable.

The earth rotates once every 24 hours producing the interval of time called "day". If the earth rotated more slowly, we would have more extreme day and night temperatures. Other planets have "days" which are many times that of the earth, producing scorching daytime heat followed by freezing nighttime cold. The normal daily routine of plants and animals would be impossible if the earth day were much shorter than that of the present. The 24-hour day seems to be optimum, serving to evenly heat the earth (somewhat like a turkey turning on a barbecue spit).

Thus, we could hardly improve on the present arrangement of tilt and rotation, which seems to be planned for both comfort and economy. Our present tilt causes seasons with associated fluctuations in weather, producing a maximum amount of farmable land and pleasant seasons. The present rotation of the earth helps to uniformly heat its surface and cause winds and ocean currents.


The earth's atmosphere is composed of four important gases. The most abundant gas is nitrogen (N2) which comprises about 78% of the atmosphere. Oxygen gas (O2) is the second most common ingredient, being present at 21%. Argon gas (Ar) is third at slightly less than 1%. Fourth is carbon dioxide gas (CO2), present at 0.03%.

In our study of the atmosphere we see that its gases can be divided into two main categories ¾ inert gases and reactive gases. Argon is inert and nitrogen is relatively inactive. These enter into very few chemical reactions. It is indeed fortunate that nitrogen gas does not readily combine with oxygen, otherwise, we could have an ocean full of nitric acid!

Oxygen gas is the most common reactive gas in our atmosphere. The presence of abundant oxygen is the feature which most distinguishes our atmosphere, for oxygen in more than trace amounts has not been discovered in the atmosphere of any other planet.

Unlike nitrogen gas, oxygen gas readily enters into reactions with other gases, with organic compounds, and with rocks. The present level of oxygen seems to be optimum. If we had more oxygen, combustion would occur more energetically, rocks and metals would weather faster, and life would be adversely affected. If oxygen were less abundant, respiration would be more difficult and we would have a decreased quantity of ozone gas (O3) in the upper atmosphere which shields the earth's surface from deadly ultraviolet rays.

Carbon dioxide is also a reactive gas which forms an essential part of our atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is required by plants, serves to effectively trap the sun's radiation, and mixes with water to form an acid which dissolves rocks adding an important substance called bicarbonate to the ocean. Without a continuing supply of carbon from the atmosphere, life would be impossible.

Important as carbon dioxide is to the present earth and life, it comprises only a mere 0.03% of our atmosphere! This small amount, however, seems to be at the optimum value. If we had less carbon dioxide, the total mass of terrestrial and marine plants would decrease, providing less food for animals, the ocean would contain less bicarbonate, becoming more acidic, and the climate would become colder due to the increased transparency of the atmosphere to heat. While an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide would cause plants to flourish (a beneficial circumstance for the farmer), there would be some unfortunate side effects. A fivefold increase in carbon dioxide pressure (the optimum level for organic productivity) would alone cause the average world surface temperature to be a few tens of degrees Fahrenheit warmer! Also, a large increase in carbon dioxide would so accelerate the chemical weathering of the continents that an excess of bicarbonate would form in the ocean, leading to an alkali condition unfavorable for life.

The total density or pressure of our atmosphere appears to be ideal. The density is very important for it acts as an insulating blanket protecting the earth from the coldness of space. If the earth had a greater diameter, holding a more dense atmosphere, the thermal blanketing effect would be enhanced, producing a much warmer climate. If the earth were of smaller diameter, holding a less dense atmosphere, there would be a colder climate. As suggested earlier, the earth has the correct surface temperature, showing that the atmosphere has the proper density and that the earth has the proper size!

The atmosphere also serves to filter out ultraviolet light and cosmic rays. Both are harmful to life and would be much more common at the earth's surface if the atmosphere were less dense. The atmosphere also burns up meteors. Long range radio communication is possible because the atmosphere is the correct density to reflect some radio frequencies. Furthermore, the atmosphere reflects unwanted stellar noise which could interfere with radio.

This analysis shows that our atmosphere has both the correct composition and density. How, except by divine planning and design, could our atmosphere have formed?


Water is an extremely rare compound in space. A permanent reserve of liquid water, a very unlikely occurrence in space, is known to exist only on the earth. Our planet possesses an abundant supply estimated at some 340 million cubic miles of liquid water.

Water in liquid form has many unique chemical and physical properties which make it ideal as the primary component of life and the solution of the world ocean. The solvent characteristic of water, for example, makes it possible for all essential nutrients needed by life to be dissolved and assimilated. The fact that water is transparent to visible light makes it possible for marine algae to perform photosynthesis below the ocean surface and for ocean animals to be able to see through water. Water is one of only a few substances which expands when it freezes, preventing our ocean and lakes from freezing from the bottom upward.

One of the most remarkable properties of water is its high heat-capturing and heat-holding capacity. The ocean is less reflective than the land to incoming solar radiation and thereby absorbs more of the sun's energy than equal areas of land. It also takes much more heat to raise the temperature of a unit mass of seawater one degree than it does for an equal mass of the continents. Since the average temperature of the ocean is about 45 degrees Fahrenheit, the ocean will cool the hotter equatorial land portions of our planet and warm the colder polar regions. Furthermore, ocean currents caused by the earth's rotation serve to circulate seawater and prevent the equatorial seas from becoming too hot and the polar seas from becoming too cold and freezing completely.

The world ocean serves as a reservoir for some very important chemicals besides water. Most of our planet's carbon dioxide is dissolved in seawater, being in equilibrium with the atmosphere. The recent addition of large amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere by burning of fossil fuels has not significantly raised the amount of that gas in the atmosphere. Most of the combustion-derived carbon dioxide has been absorbed by the ocean.

From our discussion it should be evident that the presence of an ocean on our planet is an evidence of God's planning and foresight. No other planet is known to have a permanent supply of liquid water. The chemical and physical properties of liquid water are necessary for life to survive. The world ocean regulates the earth's temperature and serves as a reservoir for many important chemicals.


The continents which cover 29% of our planet's surface have a mean elevation of about 2,750 feet above sea level. The world ocean which covers 71% of the earth's surface has an average depth of some 12,500 feet! Why do we have such lofty continents along with such deep ocean basins? We would expect, using simple probability estimates, to have an earth of nearly constant elevation.

If we were to scrape off the continents and place them in the deeper parts of the ocean to make an earth of common elevation, we would have an earth covered with approximately 8,000 feet of water! No land areas would be exposed and terrestrial life could not exist. There would be no shallow coastal seas providing ecological zones in which most marine creatures could thrive. The ocean with a constant elevation earth would be nearly void of life.

There are two main reasons why the continents remain elevated above the sea floor. First, the continents are made up of rocks which, as a whole, are less dense than the rocks of the ocean bottom. Second, the continental crust is usually over twice as thick as the oceanic crust. The difference in density and thickness between continental and oceanic crust is just the right amount to maintain the present "freeboard" of the continents above the ocean bottom! To the evolutionist this is a peculiar accident. To the creationist, however, these facts show God's design.

Study of meteorites has revealed that the elements iron and oxygen are about equal in abundance on the average. From what is known about the density and structure of the earth, geologists suggest that iron is the commonest element in the bulk earth, being slightly more abundant than oxygen. However, when the crust of the earth is considered, geologists estimate that oxygen is about eight times more abundant than iron! Furthermore, the earth's crust has unusually large amounts of silicon and aluminum.

If we had larger amounts of iron and magnesium in the crust, oxygen from the atmosphere would be consumed to weather these elements and an oxygen-rich atmosphere would be impossible. Our present crust, unlike other planets and meteorites, is already highly oxidized and therefore permits an oxidizing atmosphere. Thus, the composition of the crust shows God’s wisdom.

Two different conclusions can be drawn from the data which have been presented. The data indicate either that an omniscient Mind planned and designed our amazing planet, or that it originated by a fortuitous accident without plan or design. There is no middle ground! One must decide either God or chance!

The person who is a consistent evolutionist will attribute the many wonders of our planet (the earth's surface temperature, tilt and rotation, atmosphere, ocean, and crust) to the unguided chance. This conclusion, though not impossible, takes a great deal of faith in extremely improbable events. It is akin to supposing that the Mona Lisa came into existence from globs of paint hurled at a canvas.

The creationist, on the other hand, will recognize that the only rational deduction from the data is that the marvels of the earth owe their origin to the intelligence and handiwork of God. It was the psalmist who said:

"In His hand are the deep places of the earth the strength of the hills is His also. The sea is His, and He made it, and His hands formed the dry land. Oh, come, let us worship and bow down let us kneel before the Lord our maker" Psalm 95:4-6.

* Stuart E. Nevins has B.S. and M.S. degrees in geology, and at time of publication was Assistant Professor of Geology at Christian Heritage College.

Cite this article: Nevins, S. 1974. Planet Earth: Plan or Accident? Acts & Facts. 3 (5).

3. The Massive Spanish Specimen

One of the biggest squid carcasses ever washed ashore in Spain. Beachgoers in Cantabria discovered the beast one October morning in 2013. An underwater photographer happened to be there and took images of onlookers snapping their own pictures of the squid. The rubbernecking was understandable. This wasn’t your normal beach wrack. Not only was it the elusive Architeuthis but its size made the creature the proverbial monster squid.

From top to bottom the squid reached 9 meters (30 feet) and when all the squishy parts were piled together on whatever they weighed it with, the monster clocked in at an amazing 180 kilograms (400 pounds).


The mighty ocean is full of wonders and teaches everyone many mighty lessons of life. Learning about treasure opens up doors to some really fun learning topics like directions, geography, parts of a ship, and adventure that are necessary for growth and development. These lessons hold the power to instill a sense of personal integrity, self-confidence, and maturity.

FirstCry Intelli

Here's some # FoodForThought for you and your little one! Learning new things gives us a feeling of accomplishment which, in turn, boosts our confidence in our own capabilities you'll also feel more ready to take on challenges and explore new business ventures. Acquiring new skills will unveil new opportunities and help you find innovative solutions to problems.

FirstCry Intelli

We have a fun #DIYActivity for you to try with your little one! Grab on some paints, get a little messy, and enjoy making these DIY Castanets and groove into some self-made music! Follow these step-by-step instructions and encourage your child to learn how people made instruments in ancient times, and how different cultures welcome music of their own kind!
Are you going to try this with your little one? Comment down below!
# firstcryindia # diyactivity # bubblewrap # blockpainting # activitiesforkids # finemotorskills # boostcreativity # creativekids # earlylerning # rainbow # comment # homeschooling # funactivity # messypainting # diymoms # bondingtime # kidstagram # momsofinstagram # instagood # instadaily # smartkids # curiouskids # homeschoolingmom # stepbystepdrawing # artistickids

Discover things to do on Maui

Discover some of the most popular activities and things to do on Maui, savoring every vacation moment with your kids, family, and friends. Enjoy full days of adventure in paradise, and create vacation memories that will be cherished for a lifetime.

Snorkel Trip to Molokini

You know the saying, “When in Rome, do as the Romans do?” Well, when on Maui, do as the Mauians do and go snorkeling at Molokini Crater. This is another must-do activity and one that your family and friends will endlessly thank you.

The Island of Maui is home to one of the few volcanic islets in the world, the Molokini Crater. Located under 3 miles away from the South Maui shoreline, this Marine Life Conservation District is one of the most popular places to snorkel in Hawaii. When it comes to snorkeling in Maui, Molokini should not be missed. When snorkeling at Molokini Crater, guests can expect to say a huge array of Maui’s marine life, including marine animals and plentiful schools of tropical fish. It’s quite common to see Manta Rays, Hawaiian green sea turtles, over 100 types of algae, 35 species of coral, Yellow Tang, Parrotfish, Morrish Idols, Raccoon Butterfly Fish and so much more.

Since Molokini is a mini volcanic caldera island, there is no sand surrounding this snorkel site. That means that the ocean clarity is the best it can possibly be for underwater visibility (up to 150 feet).
Guests can visit Molokini on both morning and afternoon Maui snorkel tours. Make sure to book this Maui activity for your next trip to the Valley Isle!

Pride of Maui Molokini snorkel tour

Discover amazing undersea life

Leilani Molokini snorkel tour

Memories not soon forgotten

Road to Hana

Traveling from the North Shore towards East Maui via the Road to Hana is one of the greatest day-long activities in all of Hawaii. For those of you who have never been, this is another must-do activity and one that should be done at least once in your lifetime.

The Road to Hana is one of the most popular activities to do on Maui for many reasons, including gorgeous scenery, visits to waterfalls, and a chance to check out less frequented areas. Most importantly, it is a chance to experience a rare glimpse into Old Hawaii, visit awe-inspiring natural wonders and see local Hawaiian culture firsthand. Some visitors choose to explore the Road to Hana by a tour, but we suggest that you rent a vehicle, plan your ideal itinerary, and set out on a personal adventure. Many guidebooks and websites direct tourist traffic down the Road to Hana, but at times do not take into account that some sights are set on private property or adjacent protected lands. The first and foremost rule for traveling down the Road to Hana is to make sure to always be respectful do not litter, do not trespass, and please do not be rude to Maui’s local community. We promise that will not go down well, so share the aloha!

When planning your trip to Hana, start at Paia Town. We suggest that you arrive in Paia by 7:30 am to avoid Hana Highway traffic and to get the most out of your day. Gas up your car, grab some coffee, water, fresh Hawaiian snacks and a picnic lunch to-go at Kuau Store, and you’re good to go!
There are numerous places to check out along the Hana Highway, but we suggest the following stops for first timers: Twin Falls (mile marker 2) for a light hike to a waterfall and a refreshing smoothie or fresh coconut, the Garden of Eden Arboretum (mile marker 10) to see Hawaiian flora and fauna, Nahiku Marketplace (mile marker 29) for yummy treats and gifts, and Wai’anapanapa State Park (mile marker 32) to see a black sand beach, a gorgeous coastline, and a rare glimpse into Old Hawaii. In Hana Town, check out Hana Bay, art galleries, and farmers markets. Just past Hana, guests can spend the day at Hamoa Beach, or travel further towards Kipahulu and explore the Seven Sacred Pools of Ohe’o. You can backtrack to Paia Town, or continue on the back route that will bring you to Upcountry Maui.

Whale Watching Tours

Maui Whale Watching tours on Maui is, without a doubt, one of the best activities to do on Maui. Hawaii, even! Seeing the North Pacific humpback whales gracing Maui’s oceans during their annual Winter migration is one of the most exciting experiences you will ever have!

With recorded sightings since ancient Polynesian cultures came to Hawaii shores, these God-like, majestic mammals have been traveling from North Alaskan waters to Hawaii’s oceans since at least 1300 AD. Year after year, these glorious ocean creatures continue to visit Maui’s waters to give birth to their baby calves and lay low for the Winter months.
When witnessing this endangered and protected species in action, guests can expect to see the whales tail slap, frolic and play one the ocean surface. On average, mature Humpback Whales are approximately 40-feet in length and 40-tons in weight. So, it is pretty hard to miss these massive ocean dwellers in movement it is surely a breathtaking experience every time.
Maui’s formal Whale season can begin as early as November and end as late as May. Peak season for Whale Watching on Maui is approximately December 15th- March 31st, and best experienced aboard an ocean vessel. Although the tremendously gorgeous Humpback Whales can also be spotted from the shoreline, a Maui Whale Watching Tour is a must-do activity!

Pride of Maui Whale Watching Tour

Sunrise at Mt. Haleakala

Venture to 10,000 feet above sea level and see a glorious Maui sunrise from the summit of Mt. Haleakala on Maui. This must-do Maui activity is one that will leave you with a jaw dropping grin upon your face, and many ooh’s and awe’s in the crowd! There’s absolutely nothing quite like a Maui sunrise (except maybe a Maui sunset), and you will have more than one chance to check it out while on the island. A great time to see the sunrise at Mt.

Haleakala is during your first morning on Maui. (Not only will it set the pace for your perfect Maui vacation, but it could also be just what you need to avoid jet-lag induced tossing and turning in the early morning hours). You now must make reservations to visit Haleakala Crater*

When planning for this Maui activity, please take into account that it will take you about 1.5 hours to get to Mt. Haleakala’s summit from Kahului. Depending on what part of the island you are staying on, check with your concierge or the closest local and ask them how long it takes to get to Kahului from where you are. Next, check the local sunrise time, and plan to reach the Haleakala Visitor Center about 30-minutes before sunrise to get oriented with the best view. When venturing to Haleakala, know that the weather will be much cooler at a higher elevation, so be sure to bring a hoodie and blanket for some snuggle time. Fill up your gas tank, grab some coffee and snacks, your camera and/or smartphone, and you are ready to go.

Seeing the sunrise from Mt. Haleakala is truly a thrilling experience. Watching the sun emerge from the clouds for another fabulous Maui day is almost sacred. It’s like watching a watercolor painting unfold before you, and as cheesy as that may sound, it is also heartwarming (literally and figuratively). Soak up the sun and savor this awe-inspiring Maui activity!

Maui Ocean Center

Enjoy an afternoon with your family and friends and visit the only aquarium in the world dedicated to displaying and preserving Hawaiian marine life. The Maui Ocean Center offers full exploration for all visitors, whether it’s adults or children. It is most definitely one of the top things to do in Maui with kids!

The Maui Ocean Center exhibits Hawaiian sea life, educational displays about ocean ecology, whale life and Hawaiian culture. Through a guided walking path, all guests will love their rare attractions including the outdoor Hawaiian Sea Turtle sanctuary and Hammerhead Shark pool. This aquarium is also well known for their fully encircling sea-tunnel, and a huge indoor shark tank that displays Hammerhead Sharks, Tiger Sharks, White Tips, Grey Tips, and a variety of deepwater fish.


Golfing in Hawaii is heaven on earth for all golf enthusiasts! Ranging from golf student to golf professional, the Hawaiian Islands offer a gorgeous golf experience for everyone. The golf community in Hawaii ranges from public courses to the uber-private and elite golf locales only available to the rare few.

From all golf resorts in the State of Hawaii, golfers and friends will surely lavish in the luxury of immaculate conditions – warm sunshine, pristine greens, a luxurious atmosphere, privacy and fabulous 360-degree panoramic views.

Explore the Island of Maui in early January and attend the PGA’s Annual Hyundai Tournament of Champions at the Kapalua Resort or visit anytime throughout the year for a 5-star golfing experience. Here, guests can rub elbows with the best golf professionals in the world while basking in magical West Maui views. In South Maui, golfers can refine their skills at David Leadbetter’s Golf Academy, and spend long days on the greens at the notorious Wailea Golf Resort’s Gold, Emerald and Old Blue courses. Guests can journey to a golfing fantasy scenario on the Island of Lana’i at the Four Season’s Manele Bay and Lodge at Koele and should not miss the Mauna Kea Golf Course or Waikoloa Beach Resort’s King Course on the Big Island. Kaua’i offers an abundance of beautiful golf resorts including the Princeville Golf Club, Makai Golf Club at Princeville, Poipu Bay Golf Course, Kauai Lagoon Golf Club and Puakea Golf Course. No matter what Hawaiian Island you choose for a golf vacation in paradise, you will not be disappointed.

For more information about golfing in the Hawaiian Islands, please visit Golf Now.

Sunset Luau Dinner Cruise

Surprise your loved ones and friends with a special evening cruising at a comfortable speed on a Pride of Maui Sunset Luau Dinner Cruise. This must-do Maui activity featuring Polynesian dancers, luau cuisine, and a premium open bar is the best way to explore the Island of Maui, with breathtaking panoramic views of the Pacific Ocean, outer islands of Moloka’i and Lana’i, West Maui Mountains, Haleakala Volcano, and the most optimum placement to watch a magical Maui sunset fade into the ocean.

Without a doubt, this tour is absolutely the best for watching the Humpback Whales play in the early evening.
A Pride of Maui Sunset Luau Dinner Cruise is most definitely one of the finest ocean activities in all of Hawaii. Only onboard the famously stable Pride of Maui vessel can guests create the most beautiful, everlasting vacation memories! Like a watercolor painting, (but with a cocktail in hand), all guests will surely become infused with the true beauty of the Magic Isle, Maui. From the sounds of rolling waves, Polynesian dance and luau to the scent of fresh sea air and a premium open bar, this activity is no ka oi (the best). Do not miss out on an extraordinary opportunity and life experience with Pride of Maui!

Hawaii Mermaid Adventures

Without a doubt, there’s an ocean full of Maui things to do! Booking an experience with Hawaii Mermaid Adventures is probably one of the coolest, most memorable, and unique Maui activities to explore.

With Hawaii Mermaid Adventures, guests can learn how to swim like a mermaid in the ocean or a resort pool, and they can even purchase their very own mermaid tail. Maui mermaid swimming lessons are available for all children, women, and men between 50-220 lb. All aspiring mermaids and mermen are encouraged to learn how to swim, learn about Maui’s oceans, mermaid myths, and legends, and play while wearing a mermaid tail.

Instructors at Hawaii Mermaid Adventures are lifeguard/CPR certified, and they’re also certified naturalists. Mermaid swimming lessons begin with safety information and continue with practice swims, feedback, tips and tricks, Maui marine information, and more learnings about how to protect Maui’s coral reefs.

Mermaid swim classes are available in South Maui and West Maui. Guests can book a swim class at a Maui resort swimming pool, or in the ocean. All classes include GoPro photography taken by the instructor, and if guests would like to book a professional photoshoot add-on, they can do so at the time of booking.

Here is a great adventure for families on vacation in Maui, couples celebrating a holiday or a honeymoon, and a fabulous idea for friend groups traveling to Maui for a vacation in paradise.

Maui Ocean Vodka Tour

If you love vodka and/or have an interest in organic farming, then Maui Ocean Vodka Organic Farm & Distillery Tour is the perfect activity to enjoy while exploring Maui’s Upcountry area. Maui Ocean Vodka is an award-winning spirit made right here on Maui!

Guest visiting this family-ran vodka distillery will be amazed by the spectacular location. Make sure to bring your camera to his gorgeous 80-acre property. Enjoy the majestic Mt. Haleakala as your backdrop, the West Maui Mountains below and unobstructed ocean views. The photo opportunities are countless here!

The tour begins with an overview of the process involved in growing more than 30 varieties of Polynesian sugar cane needed to produce Maui Ocean Vodka. Visitors will also learn about sustainable farming and organic practices that are used in both the growing and harvesting of the sugarcane. Next, you will witness exactly how Ocean Vodka is made using the organic sugar cane juice in combination with Hawaiian sea minerals that are found 3,000 feet under the ocean’s surface. Hence the name, “Ocean Vodka.”

Obviously, the best part of the tour is tasting it for yourself. All visitors 21+ are invited to sample this amazingly smooth and certified 100% USDA organic vodka. Once you taste the distinct and unique flavor of Maui Ocean Vodka, you will understand why it’s so popular. Tours are offered 7 days a week and mobility is required, as you will cover over 500 yards.

Visit Historic Paia Town & The North Shore

When on Maui, absolutely do not miss out on a chance to check out the Historic Town of Paia and the North Shore area. This can quite easily become a day-long outing, so make sure that you plan for the time to explore. When on the North Shore, visitors can explore beaches and scenic areas, peruse boutiques and art galleries, and dine at a variety of restaurants.

Paia and the North Shore areas are without a doubt unique communities in Hawaii. Paia Town has rightfully gained the name “The Coolest Little Town on Maui” for many reasons. The Town was first built upon the bustling sugarcane agricultural business that began to dominate the North Shore areas of Maui during the 1870’s when the first sugar mill in Paia opened. The Town of Paia was established as a U.S. Census designated Hawaii township in 1896.
Once a home to plantation workers, Paia and the North Shore now consist of a funky hybrid of residents – locals born and raised on Maui, West Coast hippies that migrated during the Counter Culture Revolution, New Agers, and a blend of mainland and international residents that are drawn to the North Shore for its bohemian nature and excellent ocean conditions for surfing and water sports.

Spa Day

On your next vacation to the fabulous Island of Maui, plan an out of this world spa day at the Ritz Carlton Spa in Kapalua. Here, guests will surely love their spa menu full of healing services for your body, mind, and soul.

For women, we suggest that you book the 3.5 hour Na Koho Wahine spa package to enjoy the Pineapple Papaya Body Polish, Lomilomi Massage, an Organic Facial, and a choice of a Purifying Volcanic or Energizing Spearmint Pedicure. For men, choose the 2.5 hour Na Koho Kane spa package where you will savor a Lomilomi Massage, the Simultaneous Scalp Conditioning and Foot Massage, and a Gentlemen’s Facial. Guests of the Ritz-Carlton Spa on Maui also receive access to their spa facilities day of treatments.
Spa facilities include private relaxation areas that resemble volcanic stone grottos, women’s and men’s private relaxation lounges, Cedar saunas, Eucalyptus-infused steam rooms, private and co-ed indoor heated whirlpools, and a 24-hour fitness center.


The first Western written account of surfing in Hawaii was in 1779 by Lieutenant James King. He colorfully described Native Hawaiians riding wood planks on the ocean swells of the Big Island’s Kealakekua Bay. In the ancient Hawaiian language, surfing is also referred to as “hee nalu,” and was indefinitely a spiritual practice that engaged the Native Hawaiians with the energy of their gods. In history, hee nalu (surfing) was an activity reserved for Hawaiian royalty, and termed the “Sport of Kings.

Today, surfing is an ocean activity available to the masses throughout the world. It is one of the most popular ocean sports, and one that is constantly transitioning with unique skills, trends, style, technique and craftsmanship. The Islands of Hawaii still remain on the forefront as the best location in the world for surfing.
Visitors travel to Maui from all corners of the world for surfing each year. Surfing is most definitely prevalent on all the Hawaiian Islands, with some of the most renowned Hawaiian surfing locales on Maui’s infamous East and West side North Shore beaches. Visit Maui and see professional watermen and women take stage at Ho’okipa Beach Park, Jaws and Honolua Bay.

Helicopter Tours

Soar above the Hawaiian Islands and survey the beautiful Island of Maui and the outer islands of Moloka’i and Lana’i with a bird’s eye view! See lush valleys, secret waterfalls, dramatic coastlines, erupting volcanoes and colorful reef formations from the skyline. When in Hawaii, there are a variety of helicopter tour companies and tours to choose from. However, as they all offer different experiences we have written about a couple of Maui helicopter tour companies for your consideration.

Blue Hawaiian Helicopters was named Hawaii’s Premier Helicopter Tour Company by National Geographic and 2014 winner of the TripAdvisor Certificate of Excellence. We love this leader in Hawaii helicopter tours, with Blue Hawaiian, guests have the option to choose from six tours of Maui County – West Maui Mountains, West Maui & Moloka’i, Hana/Haleakala, Complete Island, Maui Spectacular and Maui/Big Island. Guests can also book a private charter tour, a great option for honeymoon and celebration related sky adventures.
Since 2001, Blue Hawaiian Helicopters has been offering Eco-Star helicopters, which are state of the art, utilize “quiet-technology,” have an expansive cockpit and feature first-class seating. All tours feature Bose aviation-grade noise-canceling headsets, 4-camera digital DVD in-flight recording and two-way communication between the guests and the pilot.

Blue Hawaiian Helicopter Tour Details

  • West Maui Mountains – This 30-minute tour showcases the beauty of the West Maui Mountains. This tour explores mist-shrouded peaks, knife-edge ridges, and cascading waterfalls as you fly over one hidden valley after another.
  • West Maui and Molokai – This tour runs about 50 minutes. As you fly over the West Maui Mountains and historical Iao Valley your pilot, who is a State of Hawaii Certified Tour Guide, will share important historical and cultural facts about these landmarks. Eventually, you will cross the Pailolo channel to Molokai, also known as “The Friendly Isle”. Molokai is home to the world’s highest sea cliffs, Hawaii’s tallest waterfall, and of course, the famous Kalaupapa peninsula.
  • Hana/Haleakala – Another 50-minute tour, the Hana/Haleakala option showcases some of the most popular areas on the island, including Haleakala National Park and Haleakala Crater, Manawainui, Ohe’o Gulch (Seven Pools), the sleepy town of Hana and Hana Rainforest Preserve—the largest rainforest in the United States. During this tour, you will see hundreds of breathtaking waterfalls and the rugged coast of East Maui.
  • Complete Island – A complete island tour is estimated to take 65 minutes and highlights both East and West Maui. Just to name a few notable spots, this tour will take you over Haleakala Crater, Ohe’o Gulch, and the West Maui Mountains. As with all Blue Hawaiian tours, your pilot is a State of Hawaii Certified Tour Guide who will share their wealth of knowledge with you as you fly over these breathtaking sites.
  • Maui Spectacular – This hour and a half long tour is a combination of the West Maui and Hana/Haleakala tours with an exciting bonus—a landing at an exclusive scenic site at Ulupalakua Ranch, on the slopes of Haleakala. First, you will fly above magnificent West Maui, exploring valleys and waterfalls from the sky before landing at Ulupalakua Ranch, where you will be served refreshments as you relax and take in the lush scenery in front of you. When the 20-minute refreshment break is over the tour continues over East Maui, which includes Haleakala and heavenly Hana.
  • Maui – Big Island – This two-hour tour will fly you over Haleakala Crater before crossing the Alenuihaha Channel to get to the Big Island. As you fly over the Big Island you will explore the deep valleys of the Kohala Mountains, lovely cascading waterfalls, lush rainforest, and the remnants of an ancient Hawaiian settlement. During the return flight to Maui, the lovely town of Hana will be showcased, as well as the hundreds of waterfalls that exist in the Hana Rainforest.
  • Private Charters – Blue Hawaiian Helicopters designs their tours to maximize the value of time spent in the air, as such they will help you design a custom itinerary for your private charter. Popular touring options include their two-hour Big Island-Maui tour, half-day heli hike, and doors-off flight, which is perfect for photographers and cinematographers.

Air Maui is a helicopter tour company with over 25 years of perfect safety. This fantastic company was also a 2014 winner of the TripAdvisor Certificate of Excellence. Air Maui offers six helicopter tours: Hana & Haleakala with Cliff Side Landing, Hana & Haleakala, Complete Island, West Maui & Molokai, West Maui & Molokai Special, and Maui Lite. They also offer private custom charters which include catering and ground transportation.

Air Maui utilizes the “world’s best touring helicopter”, the American Eurocopter ASTAR for all of their flights. The ASTAR features air conditioning, leather seats, noise reducing headsets, and digital stereo music. The cabin is comfortable and an unobstructed 180-degree view is available from every seat. A MultiVision video system records your tours, along with the pilot’s narrations and background music in HD on a USB flash drive.

If the planet is geologically/volcanically active hydrothermal vents are a way by which nutrients, in the way of minerals and chemicals, can enter the ocean.

Certain types of bacteria can consume the minerals and such bacteria form the base of a food chain. Also, the heat from the hot water can provide energy to life forms.

On an ocean planet, nutrients can come either from space or from the bottom of the ocean, where they can leak from the crust trough different processes, perhaps with the help of submarine volcanoes or hydrotermal vents if the planet is geologically active. The latter is likely to be the case, because assuming you meant water oceans, to have that much water at the right temperature to keep it liquid, the planet will most likely be a super earth orbiting a small star, like Kepler-22b

Such large planets will most likely cooldown slow enough to provide many billions of years of volcanic and tectonic activity.

However, from Earth's oceans, we know that the most biologically productive areas are associated to landmasses, because they force upwelling and due to the nutrients that rivers and winds carry from them. So perhaps more than the original source of the nutrients, we should figure out how those nutrients will cycle to sustain life: In an ocean world, the productivity would be limited by the strength of the ocean vertical currents, that could bring nutrients from the bottom of the ocean to shallow waters were sunlight provides the planet's largest source of energy.

At some point, ocean worlds were very good candidates to host life, but now it looks it might not be the case: Due to the quick dissolution of chemical gradients on an ocean. The leading theory for the origin of life is that of the "warm little pond", an environment that wouldn't exist in an ocean planet.

Another problem facing life on super earth ocean worlds, is that with the pressures found at the bottom of the ocean, the ocean floor will probably get covered in HDA a dense form of water ice. Creating a layer that would difficult the exchange of chemical compounds and heat between the crust/mantle and the ocean, hampering the formation and sustainability of life. On the bright side, if such planets orbit a small star, they will have plenty of time to form life, as small stars live much longer.

So in addition to ask if an ocean world can support life, it is also interesting to ask if life is likely to form in such worlds.

It is a possibility that in such worlds life is confined to hydrotermal vents, but from your question I assume you are pondering the possibility of an ocean full of life, like the ones on Earth.

10 Ocean Life PATTERN felt ornaments, PDF no sew ornament, digital SVG cut file, gift plushie, seahorse, coastal nursery decor

The PDF pattern is perfect for cutting with scissors however an SVG cut file is also included.

This PDF will show you how to make an ocean-full of fun felt ornaments! These ornaments are perfect for a coastal Christmas tree, as gift tags or beach wedding favours and decor. Includes the following designs:
-clam shell
-puffer fish
-sand dollar
-butterfly fish
-clown fish

This PDF contains easy step by step instructions with detailed photos. The designs are to size, ready to be printed out and cut.

The completed ornaments vary in size from 9cm-14cm high and 7cm-13cm wide, but you can resize the pattern as you like.

You will receive an immediate download link once payment has been confirmed.

PDF includes:
-Printable pattern
-Step by step photo tutorial
-List of materials

REFUND POLICIES: due to its digital nature, please note that there is no refund possible for any PDF pattern in our shop.

Items made from this pattern may not be sold without the designer's consent. This pattern is for personal use only.

Mass production, re-sale and distribution of pattern pieces and instructions is strictly prohibited.

Geology Exam 3 Study Guide

Cratonic cycle includes all the sedimentary rocks that formed as the result of a single flood of the craton.

• Uplift of sea floor as a consequence of an increase in the rate of spreading along oceanic ridges and bulging up of the ocean floor.

Adaptive causes:
• Protection (UV radiation and rise of predators)
• Support (increase in size)
• Locomotion (increased motor capability)

o Evolution of eukaryote cell from the prokaryote state
o Attainment of multicellular grade of life
o Diversification of multicellular forms of life prior to the development of "hard parts."

• It was a time of experimentation. Many bizarre forms of life evolved, survived for a brief period of time,
and then disappeared leaving no descendants. Almost all diversity in the Cambrian is in the experimental forms - a phylum or class in the modern classification. From the Ordovician onward, most fossils fit about 8 phyla

• The giant continental plate Gondwana extends from equator to nearly the south pole

• Panthalassa Ocean dominated northern hemisphere

• Most of the continents covered with epicontinental seas

• Laurentia, Baltica, Avalonia, and Siberia drew closer, Iapetus ocean began to close

• Early Ordovician - general regression and end of the Sauk Cratonic Cycle.

• Onsetting of the Taconic orogeny signaled by changes in depositional patterns along the eastern margin of North America.

• Uplift and erosion of Taconic Mountains - formation of the Queenston.clastic wedge

• Clastic wedge: thick wedge-shaped body of sedimentary rocks formed by the erosional products from a
mobile belt.

• Clastic wedge is thickest near eroding highlands and thinning distally.

• Early orogenic deposition - deepwater black shales and graywackes (flysch deposits).

• An interesting aspect of Ordovician faunas was that most of the life was adapted to a surface mode life
strategy either as fixed (sessile) or mobile existence.

• Living strategies for living below the surface required more advanced abilities for utilization of the
available resources and as a consequence only a few groups such as the clams able to developed the ability for a subsurface mode of existence.

• Reefs become an important feature of the Ordovician seas.

• Period of adaptive expansion. All major groups of invertebrates present at the end of the Ordovician

Watch the video: 11 erstaunlichste Bewohner des Marianengrabens!